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Tungsten sheets, plates, sputtering targets

Use

Tungsten sheets and plates are used in high and extremely high temperatures, as equipment for high-temperature furnaces (heat screens, supports and other reinforcing elements) and also in the aerospace industry.

Thanks to its high absorbency of X- and gamma-rays, tungsten is widely used in the form of screens for weakening the flow of nuclear radiation in the nuclear power industry, in collimators and in radiotherapy.

Tungsten sputtering targets made in the form of plates are used to deposit thin barrier films during the metallization of semiconducting components of integrated circuits.

Sheets from W-PM tungsten

Chemical composition

Sheets are made from tungsten powder reduced with hydrogen from tungsten oxide. Tungsten oxide with a mass percentage of WO3 99.98 % (the typical value is 99.99% WO3 without including gas-forming elements) is used as raw material.

An example of the chemical composition of tungsten powder  PW1,  PW2
Grade W, % Element contents, ppm
Na Al Si P K Ca Ti V Fe Ni Mo As, Cd, Sn, Sb, Pb, Bi
PW1 >99.98 6 7 < 5 10 10 6 0.6 0.3 15 12 38 < 9.5
of impurities, not including C, N, O, H, F, P, S, Cl < 122
PW2 >99.98 0.5 1 6 6 50 10 0.1 2 10 5 55 < 3
of impurities, not including C, N, O, H,  F,  P, S, Cl < 160

Dimensions and surface condition

W-PM sheets and plates are made with a thickness of between 0.5 and 45 mm, with trimmed edges, or tooled in accordance with the client's needs.

The roughness of tooled surfaces is set at Ra <10 microns.

Thickness, mm Width, mm Length, mm
From 0.5 to 0.7 From 20 to 250 From 50 to 1000
> 0.7 to 5.0 From 30 to 310 From 50 to 1000
> 5.0 to 7.0 From 30 to 320 From 50 to 700
> 7.0 to 15.0 From 30 to 305 From 50 to 350
> 15.0 to 20.0 From 30 to 250 From100 to 300
> 20 to 45 Up to 150* Up to 250*

*Width and length are set depending on the plate's thickness.

Sheets and plates may be made with other maximum dimensions for width, length and thickness - for example, with a thickness starting at 0.3 mm - based on the client's request.

Nonflatness

The nonflatness of thin sheets with a thickness of up to 3 mm is as follows: < 2 mm per 100 mm of length; and, for sheets with a thickness of more than 3 mm with no tooling: < 1 mm per 100 mm of length.

At the client's request, sheets are produced with more rigorous nonflatness requirements.

Lack of internal defects, microstrucure, density

At the client's request, sheets and plates are delivered with control for micro- and macro-structure, mechanical properties and density.

Sample microstructures of tungsten sheets with controlled parameters

fig. 1
fig. 2
fig. 3

*Fig.1: W-PM sheet, thickness 1 mm, x100, density of material 19.21 g/cm3, hardness HRC 46.

*Fig.2: W-PM sheet, thickness 5 mm, x100, density of material 19.25 g/cm3, hardness HRC 44

*Fig.3: W-PM plate, thickness 8 mm, x100, density of material 19.25 g/cm3, hardness HRC 43

Rolling of precision sheet W99.95-PM

Requirements for the chemical composition and dimensions of W99.95-PM rolled stock are set that meet the ASTM B760 standard, along with heightened surface quality requirements with respect to State Standard 23922 for W-PM sheet.

Dimensions, surface condition

Thickness, mm Thickness tolerances, % maximum Width, mm Length, mm
From 0.5 to 1.0 ± 10 From 10 to 200 From 50 to 1000
> 1.0 to 15.0 ± 10 From 10 to 310 From 50 to 1000
> 15.0 to 40.0 ± 10 From 10 to 310 From 50 to 600

Maximum deviations for rolled stock width.

Thin sheet from 0.5 mm to 4.75 mm is made with trimmed edges (ends), with a width tolerances of ± 1.6, or with tooled ends with a width tolerances of ± 0.8 mm, unless otherwise requested by the client.

Maximum rolled stock length deviations do not exceed ± 1.6 mm per 304.8 mm of length, and camber is no more than 1.6 mm per 304.8 mm of length, unless otherwise requested by the client.

Deviations from flatness (undulation) depending on the thickness of rolled stock
Thickness, mm Flatness deviation, %, maximum
From 0.5 to 4.75 4
> 4.75 to 15.9 5

Surface roughness of tooled rolled stock.

The parameter for roughness of a milled surface is no more than Rz 40; the parameter for roughness of a ground surface is no more than Ra 1.6.

Thermal treatment

Following pressure treatment, rolled stock is annealed for internal stress removal, unless the client has other needs regarding the condition of the material.

Chemical composition of W99.95-PM rolled stock

W99.95-PM is made from the same reduced tungsten powder as W-PM grade rolled stock (see above).

Guaranteed chemical composition of W99.95-PM rolled stock
Grade W, % minimum* Impurities content, ppm, maximum
Fe Al Ni Si C O N
W99.95-PM 99.95 80 50 50 50 50 100 100

* the mass percentage of tungsten is determined by subtracting from 100% the total of controlled metallic admixtures, without including the gas-forming elements C, O, N, S, H, F, Cl.

Sample chemical composition of W99.95-PM sheet 3.5 mm
Grade W, % Impurities content, ppm *
C O N Fe Al Ni Si Ca Na K Mo P S As
W99.95-PM 99.986 15 40 20 13 2 15 6 6 6 20 45 <1 10 1

* the total content of metallic impurities, determined using mass-spectrometry with inductively couple plasma (ICP-MS), does not exceed 0.0138 % (138 ppm).

Tungsten sputtering targets W99.95-PM

Tungsten sputtering targets are made in the form of tooled drawings and discs with dimensions and surface conditions set according to the plans agreed upon with the client.

Guaranteed chemical composition of W99.95-PM sputtering targets
Grade W,%, minimum* Impurities content, ppm, maximum
Fe Al Ni Si C O N
W99.95-PM 99.95 80 50 50 50 100 100 100
of metallic impurities < 500 **

* the mass percentage of tungsten is determined by subtracting from 100% the total of controlled metallic impurities without including the gas-forming elements C, O, N, S, H, F, Cl.
** metallic impurities are determined using mass-spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-MS).

Advantages:

 

  • the chemical purity of products from metallic admixtures and harmful interstitial impurities, ensures better mechanical characteristics of the material and operating properties of the products when working at high temperatures or with radioactive loads;
  • it is possible to deliver rolled stock and products ranging from thin sheets to large-size plates tooled according to the client's plans;
  • homogenous microstructure;
  • varied product design to satisfy the client's individual needs.